Civil War – 69AD

Civil War 69-69 AD


Gaius Julius Vindex, descended from the kings of Aquitania and the son of a Roman senator, was governor of Gallia Lugdunenis at the time he raised the standards of revolt against Nero in March 68AD as a reaction to Nero’s tax policy. Having no Roman troops under his command, Vindex appealed to other provincial governors to support his uprising, an invitation which was answered only by Servius Sulpicius Galba in Spain (Tarraconensis). Even his own provincial capital of Lugdunum refused to join his cause, though Vienna (modern Vienne) in Narbonensis did side with him and was the probable place of mintage of the coins struck during the period of his revolt (none of which bear his name or portrait). In May the rebellion of Vindex was crushed when his army was defeated at Vesontio by L. Verginius Rufus, governor of Upper Germany. Just a few weeks later Nero committed suicide and soon afterwards Galba was formally recognized as emperor by the Roman Senate.

Vindex’s coinage did not display his portrait in a direct attempt to resurrect the old Republic before Augustus (27BC-14AD). Despite the fact that Vindex was defeated, popularity was growing for a rebellion and thus Galba was looked upon as a favorite. Sensing this, Nero fled Rome. Shortly after, the Senate decided to oust Nero by declaring him a public enemy, thus spurring on Nero’s suicide. His death saw the arrival of the first civil war since the defeat of Marc Antony in 30 BC. Consequently, between June 68 AD and December 69 AD, Rome witnessed a period of anarchy and a series of quick successions. Four Emperors ruled in this period: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian, with the latter securing the imperial throne and founding the Flavian dynasty.

Therefore, the Civil War begins with this series of coins that were struck without the contemporary portrait of an emperor as had been the case since the time of Augustus during the birth of the Imperial Era. Instead, we find various types being issued with an assortment of Roman gods including that of the Divine Augustus.

AUGUSTUS ISSUES

AU Aureus (Radiate Augustus rt/Pax) hunt RIC114-115
AU Aureus (Radiate Augustus rt/Pax) hunt RIC114-115
AU Aureus (Augustus bare rt/AVGVSTVS below capricorn) RIC81


AR Denarius (Radiate Augustus rt/Crescent 7 Stars) 1 RIC95v
AR Denarius (Augustus bare hd rt/trophy prow) 1 RIC- (Spain) VF EXTREMELY RARE UNIQUE
AR Denarius (Augustus bare hd rt/Capricorn) RIC3
AR Denarius (Augustus bare hd rt NO LEGEND/Capricorn) RIC2
AR Denarius (Radiate Hd rt/Winged Caduceus) RIC5
AR Denarius (Laur hd rt/Caius+Lucius CÆs) RIC6
AR Denarius (Laur hd rt NO LEGEND/Victory stg left) RIC7
AR Denarius (Laur hd rt NO LEGEND/Concordia seated) RIC8
AR Denarius (Laur hd rt/Comet 8 rays) BMC49 S98a
AR Denarius (Laur hd rt/Bull walking rt) RIC9
AR Denarius (Laur hd rt/Bull butting left) BMC51 S159a
AR Denarius (Radiate Hd rt/Diana running rt) RIC11
AR Denarius (Laur hd rt/Jupiter stg left) RIC-G5
AR Denarius (Bared hd left/OB CIVES wreath) 1 RIC12
AR Denarius (Laur hd rt/PAX clapsed hands) RIC13
AR Denarius (Rad hd rt/PAX clapsed hands) RIC-DA2
AR Denarius (Laur hd Left/SENAT Victory walking left) RIC-21/22
AR Denarius (Rad hd rt/SENAT Victory walking left) RIC-DA5
AR Denarius (Laur hd Left/Cupid+dolphin) RIC17
AR Denarius (Laur hd Rt/SPQR wreath) 1 RIC16
AR Denarius (Bare hd rt/SPQR wreath) BMC54 S284a
AR Denarius (Bare hd rt/SPQR CL V 2 palms) 1 RIC 108
AR Denarius (Bare hd rt/SPQR on shield) RIC18
AR Denarius (Laur hd Rt/SPQR PP OBCS wreath) RIC20
AR Denarius (Laur hd Rt No Legend/Victory on Globe) RIC23
AR Denarius (Laur hd Left/Quadriga) RIC24

FEMALE DEITY

AU Aureus (Female bust rt/Roma stg rt hldg Vic) 1 RIC8 XF 7.3
AU Aureus (Female bust rt/VIRTUS stg l r knee bent) RIC13
AR Denarius (Female bust rt/Roma stg rt hldg Vic)
AR Denarius (BON EVENT Female bust rt/Roma stg rt hldg Vic) 1 RIC 9
AR Denarius (BON EVENT Female bust rt/Vic stg globe)
AR Denarius (BON EVENT Female bust rt/Virtus stg) RIC S29
AR Denarius (BON EVENT Female bust rt/OB CIVIS wreath) UNKNOWN
AR Denarius (BON EVENT Female bust rt/Clasped Hands) RICS11
AR Denarius (BON EVENT ET FELICITAS Female bust rt/Clasped Hands)
AR Denarius (MONETA bust rt/impliments) RICS26

GALLIA

AR Denarius (Bust Gallia rt w/trumpet/hands
AR Denarius (Bust Gallia+Concordia facing/Biga) RIC S27

GENIUS

AU Aureus (GENIVS bust rt bearded/MARS VLTOR Mars adv rt) RIC43
AR Denarius (Bust Genius rt diad & bearded/Jupiter seated) RICM10
AR Denarius (Bust Genius rt diad & bearded/Mars stg) RICG11
AR Denarius (Bust Genius Lf diad & bearded/Mars stg) RIC181
AR Denarius (Bust Genius Rt diad & bearded/Legion stands) RICG32
AR Denarius (Genius hd rt cornucopia/Mars walking) 1 RIC18 (Spain)
AR Denarius (Young Genius rt Cornucopia/Mars stg) RICS-2
AR Denarius (Young Genius rt Cornucopia/Clasped hands) RICS14
AR Denarius (Young Genius rt Cornucopia/SPQR wreath) RICG14

HERCULES

AR Denarius (Laur Beared Hercules rt/Fortuna stg) 1 RIC1 Gaul VF/XF PLATED

HISPANIA

AR Denarius (HISPANIA laur bust rt/SPQR wreath) RIC G40
AR Denarius (Draped Hispania rt/Mars stg) RICS5 PLATED

JUPITER

AU Aureus (Jupiter hd Left/Vesta seated left) hunt 1 RIC124
AR Denarius (Jupiter hd Left/Vesta seated) 1 RIC125b
AR Denarius (Jupiter hd Left/Vesta seated) 1 RIC 125
AR Denarius (Jupiter hd Left/Vesta seated) 1 RIC 125b
AR Denarius (Jupiter hd Left No Leg/Genius stg) C366a BMC12

LIBERTY

AU Aureus (Libertas rt/SPQR around shield) RIC26
AR Denarius (Libertias/Shield) 1 RIC27
AR Denarius (Veiled Libertias/Mars stg) RICG5 UNKNOWN
AR Denarius (Veiled Libertias/Mars stg rt) RIC-GR7 UNKNOWN
AR Denarius (Libertias/2 Daggers) RICS9

MARS

AU Aureus (MARS VLTOR Mars adv rt/SPQR in oak-wreath) RIC53
AR Denerius (MARS VLTOR Mars adv rt/SPQR in oak-wreath)
AR Denarius (Adv Mars/SPQR) 1 RIC54
AR Denarius (Helmeted Mars/Eagle Stnds) 1 RIC51

MINERVA

AU Aureus (Minerva helm rt/SECVRITAS in long tunic) RIC37
AR Denarius (Minerva helm rt/SECVRITAS seated) RICG31
AR Denarius (Minerva Stg rt/Leg standards) RIC G37
AR Denarius (Minerva Stg rt/SPQR wreath) RIC G21

ROMA

AR Denarius (Helmeted Roma rt VIRTVS/Shield SPQR) 1 RIC215
AR Denarius (Helmeted Roma rt/Jupiter seated) 1 RIC62
AR Denarius (Helmeted Roma rt/Leg standards) RICG36
AR Denarius (Bare hd Roma rt/OB CIVIS wreath)
AR Denarius (Bare hd Roma rt/SPQR wreath) RIC S24

SALVS

AU Aureus (SALVS ET LIBERTAS helm female stg/SPQR in oak-wreath) RIC65
AU Aureus (SALVS GENERIS Vic stg globe/SPQR in oak-wreath) RIC71A/B
AU Aureus (SALVS rt/CONCORDIA stg lf) 1 RIC134
AR Denarius (SALVS GENERIS Vic stg globe/SPQR in oak-wreath) 1 RIC73
AR Denarius (SALVS PVBLIC Drape bust rt/Roma stg) 1 RIC36

VESTA

AR Denarius (Veiled Vesta hd rt)
AR Denarius (Veiled Vesta hd rt) FOURRE’ 1 RIC128a VF 2.55
AR Denarius (Veiled Vesta hd rt/CLASPED HANDS) RICM4 Germany
AR Denarius (Veiled Vesta hd rt/Jupiter seated) RICM7 Germany
AR Denarius (Veiled Vesta hd rt/SENATVS Victory adv lf) RICM9

VENUS

AR Denarius (Dia bust Venus rt/clasped hands) DOUBTFUL

VICTORY

AR Denarius (Victory stg rt/Mars stg) Questionable
AR Denarius (Victory stg rt/Leg standars) RICG38
AR Denarius (Victory stg rt/SPQR wreath) RIC G25
AR Denarius (Victory stg globe/SPQR wreath) 1 RIC G73a
AR Denarius (Victory stg globe/SPQR OB wreath) RIC G29

Image result for vindex civil war

VINDEX (Spain)

AU Aureus (MARS VLTOR Mars adv rt/SPQR in oak-wreath) RIC53
AR Denerius (MARS VLTOR Mars adv rt/SPQR in oak-wreath)
AR Denarius (Adv Mars/SPQR) 1 RIC54
AR Denarius (Helmeted Mars/Eagle Stnds) 1 RIC51
AR Denarius (Victory stg left/SPQR wreath) 1 RIC72
AR Denarius (Victory stg right/SPQR wreath) 1 RIC73a
AR Denarius (Victory stg left/SPQR wreath)
AR Denarius (Augustus left/OB CIVES SERVAT) 1 BMC52
AR Denarius (Augustus rt/SPQR Wreath) 1 BMC55
AR Denarius (Minerva stg rt spear shield/SPQR Wreath) 1 BMC29/RIC66 plated

VIRTUS

AR Denarius (Helmeted Virtus rt/Jupiter seated) RIC7 Gaul PLATED

VULCAN

AR Denarius (Beared hd Vulcan w/cap rt) RICG2 Gaul
AR Denarius (Beared hd Vulcan w/Leg standards) RIC G39

MISC 
MILITARY ISSUES OF UPPER GERMANY

AR Denarius (FIDES clasped hands/Concordia stg left) 1 RIC118 plated
AR Denarius (FIDES clasped hands/FIDES clasped hands) 1 RICM5 FOURREE
AR Denarius (FIDES clasped hands/SPQR wreath) plated
AR Denarius (PAX ET clasped hands/Leg standards)
AR Denarius (Helmeted young male hd rt/LEG XV)
AR Denarius (Citizen stg/Victory stg) RICS21
AR Denarius (Nemesis adv rt/SPQR wreath) RIC G22
AR Denarius (PAX Nemesis adv rt/SPQR wreath) RIC G18
AR Denarius (PAX 2 joined hands/SPQR wreath) RIC G19
AR Denarius (RMA 2 joined hands/SPQR wreath) PLATED
AR Denarius (SPQR wreath/SPQR wreath) UNKNOWN


Monetary System

Mints: Rome, Tarraco, Vienna, Carthage


DENOMINATIONS

AU Aureus (6.54 grames)
AR Denarius (3.54 grames)


Monetary History of the World
by Martin A. Armstrong
© Princeton Economic Institute