Chronology

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Historical Chronology of Greece
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10,000-30 BC

1) Early Greece 10,000-1000 BC
2) Mycenaean Greece 2000-1000 BC
3) Dark Age Greece 1000-800 BC
4) Hellenic Greece 800-350 BC
5) Archaic Greece 800-500 BC
6) Classical Greece 500-350 BC
7) Hellenistic Greece 350-330 BC


Early Greece10,000-1,000 BC

10,000 BC Paleolithic Greece – rudimentary existence6,000 BC Neolithic Greece – farming, villages3,000 BC Migrations of Indo-Europeans from Asia Minor to GreeceNorthern route from Troy–>Mainland GreeceSouthern route via Egypt–>Crete

2,000-1,000 BC Mycenaean Greece

2,000-1,500 BC Minoan CivilizationRise of Non-Greek speaking Minoan Civilization on CreteOriental palace-culture at Cnossus, PhaestosMinoan Linear A hieroglyphic script-non-GreekSpread of Minoan culture over Aegean via tradeMinoan thalassocracy in Aegean 2,000-1,000 BC Mycenaean Civilization2,000 BC Invasion of Greek-speaking Mycenaeans into mainland Greece1,600 BC Rise of Mycenaean Civilization on mainland Greece

Occidental fortress-culture at Mycenaea; TirynsMycenaean Linear B syllabic script–protoGreek

1,400 BC Mycenean conquest of Minoans1,200 BC Trojan war1,100 BC Crisis in Mycenean world: collapse of civilization in Greece

? Dorian invasion? Internecine Mycenaean wars? Mycenaean civil wars1,050 BC Destruction of Mycenaea (1,050 BC)1,000 BC End of Mycenaean Greece and beginning of the Dark Age


Dark Age Greece 1,000-800 BC

1,100 BC Collapse of Mycenaean CivilizationComplete collapse of civilized life on mainland Greece and CreteGreat palace fortresses burned and abandonedLoss of Linear B script Рart of writing 1,000 BC Dark Age UnderwayLife continues at subsistence level in small isolated villagesMigrations & synoecism

Aeolians–Thessaly, Boetia; n. Aegean & coast of Asia MinorIonians–Attica; central Aegean & coast of Asia MinorDorians–Peloponnese; s. Aegean & coast of Asia Minor

 Proto-geometric & geometric potteryOral tradition

–memory of Mycenaean world preserved in myth–transformed through poetic art of song (epic)

 800 BC HomerCulmination of oral tradition in Homeric epicRise of Greek Polis- end of Dark AgeHellenic Greece begins


Hellenic Greece 800-350 BC

Archaic Greece 800-500 BC800 BC Rise of the Greek Polis776 BC 1st Olympiad; (770 BC Sacred War)750 BC Period of Colonization begins (ends c.550 BC)650 BC 2nd Messenian revolt against Sparta

Lyric Poets: Archilochus; Sappho

594 BC Solon reforms aristocracy in Athens560 BC Peisistratid tyranny in Athens509 BC Cleisthenes establishes democracy in Athens

Classical Greece 500-350 BC

499 BC Ionian revolt initiates Persian Wars490 BC Athens defeats Persia at Marathon488 BC Ostracism introduced in Athens480 BC Leonidas’ defeat at Thermopylae; Themistocles’ victory at Salamis478 BC Delian league founded

Aeschylus’¬†Oresteia

460 BC Pericles introduces radical democracy in Athens

Anaxagoras teaches natural philosophyProtagoras teaches sophistryPhedias plans ParthenonAspasia hosts intellectual Athens

454 BC Delian treasury moved to Athens – Athenian imperialism

Sophocles’¬†Oedipus the King;¬†AntigoneHerodotus’¬†Histories

431 BC Peloponnnesian Wars begins (ends 404 BC)429 BC Pericles dies in Plague; Cleon leads radical democracy

Pericles’ circle exiledAristophanes’¬†Clouds;¬†LysistrataThucydides’¬†Peloponnesian Wars

415 BC Sicilian Expedition begins (ends 413 BC) led by Alcibiades411 BC Oligarchic revolution in Athens led by Alcibiades410 BC Democracy restored by Alcibiades; Cleophon refuses peace408 BC Trial of the 8 Generals and exile of Alcibiades

Euripides’¬†Bacchae; Aristophanes’¬†Frogs

404 BC Sparta defeats Athens – reign of terror in Athens under 30 tyrants399 BC Democratic Athens executes Socrates387 BC King’s Peace imposed on Greeks by Persia

Plato establishes Academy in Athens


Hellenistic Greece 350-330 BC

338 BC¬†Philip imposes Macedonian rule of Greece via League of Corinth336 BC¬†Alexander the Great takes Macedonian throne335 BC Aristotle establishes Lyceum in Athens333 BC Alexander founds Alexandria in Egypt; conquers Persia330 BC Alexander completes conquest of “inhabited world”323 BC Alexander dies–>division of empire among his generals300 BC Hellenistic Kingdoms take shape:

Macedonia & Greece РAntigonid dynastyEgypt РPtolemaic dynastySyria РSeleucid dynasty

196 BC Roman liberation of Greece from Macedonian rule146 BC Destruction of Corinth РReduction of Greece to a Roman province30 BC Death of Cleopatra Рlast of the Hellenistic dynasts


Monetary History of the World by Martin A. Armstrong

© Princeton Economic Institute